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Meat Sector

1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON THE PROJECT
1.1 Introduction of the meat profile
Uganda has one of the best climates in Africa that is moderate with cool temperatures, and receives rainfall throughout the year.  The country has rich and green vegetation with tropical rain forests and water bodies covering most parts of the country. The River Nile, one of the longest rivers in the world, starts its long journey to Mediterranean Sea from Uganda. Uganda is home to the Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa and also the second largest fresh water lake in the world.

Uganda lies astride the equator and enjoys a unique location at the heart of sub-Saharan Africa within the East African region. The country has been able to achieve macro-economic stability when clouds of uncertainty rocked many regions of the world. Uganda is one of the fastest growing economies in Africa with GDP growth rate averaging 7.7% per annum since the year 2000, making the country the fastest growing economy in East Africa.

In order to provide information to investors to Uganda, this Meat sector profile has been prepared as a guide on the potential investment opportunities in the country. The profile gives highlight on investing in a number of areas including: beef processing, meat canning, modern abattoirs, feed Lot, and poultry.
1.2 Overview of the Meat sector
Beef production and meat canning
•    Agriculture is the most important sector in Uganda’s economy; accounting for 23.7% of GDP, 70% of the labour force and 85% of exports products in 2008/09.
•    Livestock production in Uganda contributes 7-9% of the total GDP and 17-19% of agriculture GDP (MAAIF, 2007).
•    Cattle are the main source of meat in the country and are reared on rangelands which occupy 84,000 km². The cattle corridors extend from Moroto and Kotido in North East through central Uganda to South West of Mubende, Masaka Rakai and Mbarara.
•    Of the cattle population, 80% is in the South West where the average number per household is 2.11 animals compared to Northern Uganda with 0.67 and the national average of 1 animal per household.
•    The improved cattle breeds are kept under intensive management, mostly on small scale, medium sized farms and zero grazing. The indigenous breeds are mainly kept under extensive system.
•    The traditional breeds are East African short horn, zebu, long horned Sanga Ankole, Turkana and Toposa. The exotic breeds are Charolis, Hereford, Aberdeen, Beef short and Braham.
•    Between 1991 and 2000 the cattle population in Uganda increased from 5.1 to 6.1 millions and in 2008 the cattle population was found to be 11.4 million.

Modern Abattoirs
There are currently no abattoirs in Uganda that could be upgraded to meet international requirements. In Uganda, animals are slaughtered near the place and time of consumption. Towns are supplied with meat by movement of animals to the towns, where they are slaughtered and quickly distributed to consumers. The attendant constraints in this system are that it is inefficient and accumulates waste in the urban areas. The slaughter industry can be divided into five main categories:
i) Family slaughter
Nearly half the animals slaughtered in the country are slaughtered at this level. There is no infrastructure or meat quality assurance service in this category.

ii) Slaughter at village markets
At every village market, which may be weekly or bi-weekly, there is meat offered for sale that is slaughtered on a slab for some markets and on the ground for other markets. Again, there is limited infrastructure and no meat quality assurance service.

iii) Town slaughter slabs
Eighty percent (80%) of all towns in the cattle corridor have slaughter slabs that serve as places of slaughter for the supply of meat to town residents, restaurants and hotels. These concrete slabs are built on raised ground to enable the animal to be slaughtered on clean ground; 75% of these slabs have no facilities for slaughtering animals off ground, or other basic facilities. The drainage system is poor or non-existent and there are no essential facilities such as water supply, toilets or offices.

iv) Urban slaughter houses
These are found in all major towns such as the original 17 district headquarters as at1972. Most of them have rudimentary slaughter facilities and butchery establishments. The markets tend to be held on a daily basis and in some places there are permanent buildings and a full¬time meat inspector. Most of these buildings are in dire need of rehabilitation.

v) Abattoirs
There are two abattoirs in Uganda which slaughter and cut meat for the local market:
•    Uganda Meat Industries, Kampala;
•    City Abattoir, Kampala.

Poultry processing
•    One of the major livestock kept in Uganda are chicken, turkey, guineas fowls, ducks, pigeons, geese and ostriches, of which chicken are the most kept poultry.
•    The national chicken flock is about 23.5 million composed of 3.7 million (15.8%) exotic/cross chicken and 19.8 million (84.2%) backyard. (Ref. UNHS 2007).
•    The production systems are mainly two; commercial intensive where the birds are kept in confinement, and mostly found in urban centres, with exotic and cross breeds. The other is free range, mostly for local breeds in rural areas.
•    Most of the poultry in Uganda is kept at the backyard. Out of 4.2 million agricultural household, there are 44,000 agricultural households that keep exotic/cross chicken. (UNHS, 2005). This number constitutes 1.1% of the agricultural household.
•    According to Ministry of Agriculture, the broiler chicken is mostly from small scale farms, with poultry population of below 1,000 birds, constituting 30%. The large farms consisting of 1,000-60,000 birds constitute 70%.
•    In 2006, the country produced 44,000 tonnes of broiler meat. From 2003-2005, the poultry meat increased by 22.9% and the poultry production by 38.7%. Per capita consumption of poultry has increased from 1 kg in 1996 to 2kgs to date and 80 % of broiler meat is consumed locally (UNHS, 2006).
•    There are two major players in the industry: Ugachick Poultry Breeders Ltd; and Bright Chicks, both of which are engaged in hatchery, breeding and slaughtering and processing of chicken. The products are sold through hotels, supermarkets and restaurants. The other players are the small scale backyard slaughter. This is also sold through supermarkets, hotels and restaurants.

Livestock Population in Uganda

Source: MAAIF, 1999; UBOS, 2008.
1.3 Current Activities in the meat sector
a)    Meat production
Most slaughtered animals are cull animals raised on small rural mixed farm and specialized beef ranches. The annual cost of maintaining a farm enterprise for meat production, based on local livestock production system, is low for most of beef supplies (small holders represent 94% of the national herd).  The fact that the animals produce both beef and milk, the cost of maintaining is shared between the two products, which can then be offered in the market at lower cost.
Meat is mostly from the traditional breeds, mainly Ankole cattle and zebu. A study conducted in 2007 reveals that beef is the major meat produced in Uganda as shown below.

Meat Production 2007

(UBOS, 2007)

b) Beef Processing
The meat market in Uganda can be categorized into three:
•    Traditional Uganda market; which is supplied with low quality chopped meat with bones and is low priced meat;
•    The high quality Uganda market, which is supplied with high quality meat mostly for high income earners; and
•    Expatriates which segment of the market; gets their products from supermarkets, hotels, restaurants and take-a ways.
There are 7 small scale meat processing plants in Uganda, processing between 300- 700 kgs of processed meat products per day. All the processing plants are privately owned, mostly by foreigners. Beef products on the Uganda market include: meat cuts such as sirloin, fillet, topside, rump steak, t-bone steak, rib roast, silverside, eye roast and  shin-on bone; Coarse ground products like, meat burgers, minced meat, barbeque sausages, merguez, and  fine emulsified products like fresh beef sausages, frankfurters and  meat loaf.
1.4 Competitiveness of Uganda’s Meat Sector
Uganda being landlocked presents a major competitive advantage since it is a net surplus agriculture producer in the region. The Government commissioned a study which recommended the establishment of structures and systems that generate international confidence. In this regard, in order to enhance penetration of the European market, the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) is working at the establishment of Disease Control Zones (DCZs) as the first step towards production of healthy animals. MAAIF hopes that the establishment of DCZs should help investors build a world-class abattoir, equipped and operated to internationally accepted standards of hygiene. Eventually the DCZs will become Disease-Free Zones (DFZs) with a larger national abattoir network.

Poultry
•    Uganda has low labour costs and, due to the favorable environmental conditions, the costs of feeds are low compared to the regional markets. The steady supply of water makes Uganda a competitive investment destination in the Great Lakes Region.
•    Uganda has abundant land for production and processing and the climate and soils are good for poultry feed production.
•    Improved infrastructure in form of upgraded road network all over the country facilitates the timely delivery of chicken to processing plants, and finished products to the domestic and regional markets.
•    There is up to date air transport that promotes and facilitates exportation of poultry products within the region.
•    Uganda possesses good supply of portable water, cleaning and water for waste disposal.

Beef
•    The Ankole cattle, the main supplier of meat in Uganda has a low cholesterol level (48.4mg-60.5mg/100mg of meat) and low fat (3.33%-6.48%) level which is a good health quality attributes (Ankole Watusa Study, 1993).
•    Uganda’s meat is known for good taste and flavor; this is a good market quality attribute.
•    Strategic geographic location: Uganda is located in the Great Lakes Region which is ideal for supplying the growing regional markets in Kenya, Tanzania, Southern Sudan, Congo and Rwanda.
•    Uganda’s beef is produced under halaal slaughter with independent halaal certifiers. This is a requirement of some markets like that of the Middle East and Arab Countries.
•    Uganda’s animals are fed on natural grass, the beef is organically produced. This means there are no grain feeding and nutritional supplements.
•    Favorable business environment offered through liberalization of the economy, the government is encouraging Private Sector participation in the economy.
•    There is government support to ensure meat processing enterprises attain innovative Quality Assurance Systems such as ISO.
•    Due to availability of raw materials and cheap labour, abundant supply of water and power, the cost of production is lower in Uganda compared to the neighboring countries of Rwanda, Burundi and Eastern Congo. This makes Uganda have a comparative advantage.
1.5 Favorable conditions for investing in Uganda
Beef consumption
Consumption of beef is increasing both in absolute terms and on per capita basis, as the income of people increases.  Beef consumption in Uganda is only 6 kgs per capita, which is below the recommended 50 kgs by FAO. The growing incomes represent an opportunity to invest in the sector.

Export Potential
There is an export potential to the neighboring countries where endemic diseases and hostile climate hinder production of quality beef and lack of land.
Access to resources
Land: Uganda has abundant land for industrial development and good and reliable supply of water from lakes and rivers.

Area covered by water and land in Uganda

Land use
Raw materials
Uganda has good supply of cattle for slaughter and according to the livestock census conducted in 2008, Uganda has a cattle population of 11 millions, this is an increase of 3.9 million from 2005 and about 500 cattle is slaughtered every day in Kampala.
There is an increasing number of both large scale and small scale poultry farmers. These will offer broilers for the slaughter and processing. Organized contract farming schemes are available which supply the processing companies.

Labour
There is enough supply of skilled and unskilled labour in Uganda for meat processing industry. There are graduates in food technology from Universities who can easily adapt to new technology. The casual labour rates are low with minimum wages of US $ 2-2.5 per day.

Availability of financing
There are a number of regional and International Commercial Banks including Development Banks that offer long term financing for viable projects.

Access to Markets / Market Niches
•    The domestic market is about 28 million people. The market for processed beef products especially the convenience packed hygienic beef products, is steadily growing due to; increased demand resulting from increased population, which is estimated at 3.4 % per year and per capita incomes.
•    There is a tremendous expansion of the tourism industry bringing in a new class of consumers demanding quality and sometimes unique products.
•    There is a dramatic springing up of first class supermarkets like Uchumi, Shoprite, Nakumatt and Capital Shoppers, as well as Hotels, Restaurants and Takeaways.
•    There is export potential to neighboring countries of the greater Regional East African Community comprising of Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania and Burundi, with a population of 120 million people, as well as COMESA region, beef cows are also exported to Sudan. Most of these countries have got limited available land, unpredictable weather pattern conditions and high population growth. This offers an opportunity for Uganda to penetrate the markets.
•    The Middle East and Arab countries offer a wider market for Uganda beef because the special requirement to halaal  slaughtering is compatible with Uganda beef industry.

Capability and competence
Uganda has skilled human resource from Universities and Technical Colleges which is trainable and easily adapts to new technologies. There are graduates in Food Technology with industrial practical experience acquired from existing processing plants. Makerere and Kyambogo Universities have 30-40 graduates in food science and technology each year

Favorable Location

•    Uganda is land locked and well connected with roads to the neighboring countries of East Africa and has a well developed basic infrastructure, electricity and water supplies, required for establishment of beef and poultry processing industry.
•    Uganda is located at the Equator and has tropical climate. This means the animals are reared throughout the year supplying meat all year, round for beef processing.
•    There is earmarked land by the government for beef processing, this is in cattle corridor areas, of South Western Uganda and the government is encouraging establishment of meat processing units near the cattle producing areas.
•    The government through UIA has also earmarked land for Industrial Development at Namanve Industrial Park. This is near the main abattoirs and market for products. UIA has also got land for investors in cattle corridor areas of Soroti, Mbarara, Nakasongola, Masindi etc.
•    Uganda has a favorable climate for growing of crops which can be used as feeds for birds.

2.0 INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN THE BEEF SECTOR The proposed investment opportunities in the dairy sector include processing one or a combination of the following:
•    Beef processing
•    Meat canning
•    Modern Abattoirs
•    Feed Lot
•    Poultry
2.1 Beef Processing
Purpose of the proposed project
To produce beef for the domestic and export markets

Proposed Projected Capacities and Processing Requirements
Estimated Total Investment Costs (US$)
Main Production Inputs Locally Available
Prices for raw materials, spices, additives and casings
Equipment/tools
Selected Factor Costs
Proposed Personnel and labour costs

Proposed Infrastructure available at proposed site
Preliminary Financial Viability Analysis of the Proposed Investment
Assumptions
1.    Full production capacity at 1,000  kgs of quality beef  cuts and 1,000 kgs of    sausages per day
2.    Production capacity in 1st year of  60% (600 kgs of beef cuts and 600 kgs of sausages )
3.    Increase in production of 10% per year
4.    6 working days in a week and 26 working days in a month
5.    Exchange rate of I US $ = UShs 2100

Estimated capital costs
Major input requirements:
Raw materials
Processed industrial materials and components
Factory Supplies
Labour
Sales

Indicative time schedule
Financial Analysis Profitability (US$)

Feasibility Analysis (US$)
NPV Analysis
Payback Period – 3 Years
Rate of Return (Return on Investment)

2.2 Meat Canning
Purpose of the project
The purpose is to process beef into canned meat products, corned beef, minced beef, hams and stewed meat products, for domestic, regional and Middle East markets
Projected capacities and sales and preferred technology
Description of technological options and preferred choice
Estimated total investment costs (US$)
Main production inputs locally available
Raw materials, additives and seasoning
Machinery and Equipment
There is no local supplier of these equipments in the country and all have to be imported.
Cans/tins: No local supplier, this has to be imported.

Selected Factor Costs
Proposed infrastructure costs
Proposed personnel and labour costs
Preliminary Financial Viability Analysis
Estimated capital costs
Major input required – Raw materials

Processed industrial materials and components
Factory supplies

 

Personnel and labour costs

Sales revenue projections

Indicative time schedule

Financial Analysis
Profitability Analysis (US$)

Feasibility Analysis (US$)
NPV Analysis
Payback Period – 3 Years
Rate of Return (Return on Investment)
2.3 Modern Abattoirs
Purpose of the proposed project
The objective of this proposed project is to operate modern abattoirs and produce high quality products for the local and the export markets.

Proposed projected capacities
Proposed plants and capacities
The following are proposed for this project:
•    One central abattoir and processing plant in Nakasongola.
•    One Abattoir with slaughter and cutting line at Kiruhura.
•    The capacity for the two abattoirs will increase from 4,500 tonnes each = 2 x 4,500 =9,000 tones (carcass weight) per annum to 2 x 6,480 tones = 12,960 tones assuming the average carcass weight of 150kgs initially and finally 180kgs. The abattoirs and the processing plant will be designed to cope with this capacity.

Capacity parameters
Livestock population in Uganda

Source: New Vision, Wednesday, 24th June, 2009

Capacity of proposed abattoir

Proposed processed products
Estimated Total Investment Costs

Selected Factor Costs
Cost of Labour
Infrastructure at the proposed site US$ (000)

Proposed management costs

Preliminary Financial Viability Analysis of the proposed Investment
Estimated capital costs
Major inputs
Estimated Production Costs and Operating Expenses

a)    Estimated Annual Sales Revenues
Project Implementation Plan
Financial Analysis
Profitability

Net Cash Flow Analysis (US$)

NPV Analysis
Pay Back Period Analysis

Assumptions
•    An increase in the operating cost of 2% from the first year of production to the third year, we further assume that from the fourth to the fifth year there will be an increase of 5%.
•    There will be an increase of 5% in the wholesale prices of carcasses from year one onwards.
•    Depreciation is estimated at 25% for every 3 years of full capacity production.
•    Life time for equipment is estimated at 12 years.
•    Sales and revenues only cover carcasses and other by products excluding processed products

2.4 Real feed lot
Purpose of the Feedlot Fattening Project
The project aims to purchase young and weaned calves of about 4 months old from a myriad of small scale producers and ranchers within the cattle corridor and have them prepared for slaughter (i.e. fattened) through improved feeding. The animals shall be sold off for slaughter as soon as the target weight has been achieved.

Estimated Total Investment Costs
Main production inputs locally available
Infrastructure available at the proposed site

Personnel and labour costs

 

Preliminary Financial Viability Analysis of the Proposed Investment
Production Schedules

Production quantities

Production Costs for Animals
Estimated Annual Sales Revenues

 

Financial Analysis
Profitability Analysis
Feasibility (US$)

Project Implementation schedule

 

2.5 Poultry Processing
Purpose of the project
To establish a poultry slaughter and processing plant in Uganda, the project is to produce dressed chicken and chicken parts for domestic, regional and Middle East markets.

Project capacities and preferred technology

 

Estimated Total Investment costs (US$)

 

Main production inputs locally available
Raw Materials

Selected Factor Costs
Infrastructure available at the proposed site

 

Personnel and Labour costs

 

Preliminary Financial Viability Analysis of the Proposed Investment
Assumptions
•    Full production capacity of 10,000  dressed chicken per day
•    Production capacity in 1st year of  50% (5,000 dressed chicken ) -slaughtered per day
•    Increase in production of 10% per year
•    5 working days in a week and 22 working days in a month
•    Exchange rate of 1US $ = UGX Shs 2,100

Major Input Requirements
Raw Materials
Assume 5,000 chicken bought in a day, 5 working days in a week

Processed Industrial Materials and Components

Factory Supplies

Labour

 

Sales Projections
Assume 5,000 Chicken slaughtered per day and 5 working days in a week

Indicative implementation time schedule

 

Financial Analysis
Profitability

Feasibility Analysis (US$)

NPV Analysis and Payback Period

3.0 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
3.1 Beef and Meat caning environmental and regulatory considerations
Location
Beef processing investments can be located in any part of the country especially where a cattle keeping is the predominant activity. The cattle corridor (shown in the map that follows) is the most suitable. The geographical belt that has potential for production of cattle is also suitable for the location of beef canning investments.

The Cattle Corridor in Uganda

Key

Environmental issues
The National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) are responsible for ensuring compliance with national environmental and hygiene requirements.

Regulatory and Licensing issues and procedures
The following are the requirements from different government organizations:
•    Company Registration Certificate from Registrar of companies;
•    Investment Licence from Uganda Investment Authority;
•    Health Certificate for facilities and personnel from the district health department;
•    Product Certification from  Uganda National Bureau of Standards;
•    Tax Registration from Uganda Revenue Authority; and
•    Environmental permit from National Environmental Management Authority.

3.2 Modern Abattoirs location, environmental aspects and regulatory considerations
Location
The animal health situation in Uganda requires export abattoirs to be located within the Disease Control Zones (DCZ). The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries (MAAIF) has proposed four such zones as shown in the map that follows.

Environmental aspects
The National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) are responsible for ensuring compliance with national environmental and hygiene requirements.
Regulatory and Licensing issues and procedures
The following are the requirements from different government organizations:
•    Company Registration Certificate from Registrar of companies;
•    Investment Licence from Uganda Investment Authority;
•    Health Certificate for facilities and personnel from the district health department;
•    Product Certification from  Uganda National Bureau of Standards;
•    Tax Registration from Uganda Revenue Authority; and
•    Environmental permit from National Environmental Management Authority

3.3 Feed Lot location, environmental aspects and regulatory considerations
Location
The project shall be located in Luwero District, at the outskirts of the cattle corridor. The main purpose is to locate it in an area with good rainfall and soil fertility to facilitate growth of fodder and production of silage, a key input in the fattening process. The cattle corridor will remain the key catchment area for this project. The corridor is characterised with low rainfall which has resulted in a low stocking density for livestock. Grass-silage fattening may not be viable in such an environment since it requires that quality grass and fodder be made available for the purpose.

The decision about the optimal location is influenced by several factors including the following:
•    Minimizing operational costs.
•    Minimization of transport costs of animals, fodder, by-products, concentrate feeds and manure. Since the feedlot fattening system is a cut and carry system, transport of fodder, by-products, concentrate feeds and manure will form the bulk of the transport. Transport costs for fodder will be an important part of the total production costs and have to be minimized. Locating the unit near the main source of fodder means also minimum costs to return the manure to the place where the fodder was grown and in this way may promote good agricultural practice.
•    Easy access from the public road to the feedlot.
•    Reliable water supply. Depending on the moisture content of the feed, the outside temperature and humidity, an animal of 300 kg live weight requires 30 – 90 liters water per day.

Environmental aspects
The National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) and Uganda National Bureau of Standards (UNBS) are responsible for ensuring compliance with national environmental and hygiene requirements. Though the project is anticipated to pose no danger to the environment as attempts shall be made to as much as possible to produce beef organically, it will be implemented in consultation and guidance from NEMA. Accordingly, manure generated from the project could be sold or used to produce biogas and mitigate on the environmental effects of methane gas.

3.4 Poultry project location, environmental aspects and regulatory considerations
Location
Uganda has the potential to produce both local and exotic chicken. Local chicken is reared by the majority of the households in Northern and Eastern Uganda. The chicken roam in the fields on a free range system to produce high quality organic eggs and chicken. Exotic chicken on the other hand, are extensively reared in the Central region of Uganda. The detailed location of the major chicken producing areas is shown in the map that follows.

A map showing the Major Poultry Producing Areas


Key

Environmental Issues
The National Environmental Management Authority is the Statutory Institution and lead agency in Environmental issues and usually an Environmental Impact Assessment is carried out before an industry is established.

Regulatory and Licensing Issues and Procedures
•    Company registration by Government Registrar of Companies and Uganda Investment Authority is required.
•    Operating permits and License from health department of local government is required, a health certificate is provided.
•    Product certification by Uganda National Bureau of Standards, a product certification certificate is provided.
•    Tax registration by Uganda Revenue Authority is also required, a VAT registration certificate is provided.

4.0 USEFUL CONTACTS
Main Contact

Government Agencies

Private Sector Associations

Banking