Transport sector has two subsectors, transport infrastructure and transport services. In Uganda, the existing transport services include but are not limited to road, air, railway, and water..The transport service sub sector contributed 2.5% of GDP, equivalent to Shs1, 248 billion at current prices in 2011/12 financial year. Air transport and support services contributed 0.7% of GDP equivalent to Shs332 billion in 2011/12 financial year.
Road Transport Infrastructure
The country’s road network falls into four categories: national, district, urban and community access roads. National roads total 21,000 km of which 3,490 km (16.6%) are paved and 17,510 km (83.4%) are gravel or earth surfaced. National roads are managed by the Uganda National Roads Authority (UNRA). District roads total around 32,000km (2013 records) and are a responsibility of District Local Governments. Urban roads, which currently total 13,000 km are all those roads within the boundaries of Urban Councils (excluding links maintained byUNRA) are mandated responsibility of Urban Local Governments. Community access roads the current length of which is estimated at 85,000 km are a responsibility of Local Council III (sub-county) Governments.
Road Transport services:
Include Passenger Service Vehicles (PSV), which consists of buses and mini buses; privately owned cars, cargo vehicles, motorcycles (Boda Bodas) used to transport passengers; bicycles and to a limited extent donkeys. Government intends to put in place a high volume public transport system to manage traffic levels in the country.
Air Transport infrastructure:
Air transport is playing an increasing role in the promotion of tourism and in regional integration. In addition, since the country relies on the sea route to Mombasa for international trade, air transport is an alternative transport system especially in the transportation of perishable products. In terms of infrastructure, Entebbe International Airport is currently the main functional entry and exit point into the country. There are also aerodromes (airfields) in Uganda namely: Arua,Gulu, Soroti, Pakuba, Kidepo Mbarara, Masindi,Jinja, Lira, Moroto, Kisoro and Kasese, which have been designated as exit points to handle cross border air traffic within the region. There are 60 licensed airfields but only 30 are in use.
Rail Transport infrastructure:
Currently, there are 321 km of functional rail network covering the main line from Malaba-Kampala route (251km), the Port Bell-Kampala link (9 km) and the Tororo-Mbale line (61km). The increasing export and import cargo volumes are creating a significant investment potential in railway transport.
Water Transport infrastructure:
18 per cent of Uganda’s surface area consists of lakes, rivers or swamps. The principal lake and river system includes Lakes; Victoria, Kyoga, Albert and George, together with River Kagera, the River Nile. Currently, both motorized and non motorized vessels ply the above lakes and rivers. Some water routes are served by wagon ferries while others are served by road bridge vehicle ferries. The wagon ferry routes are Port Bell – Mwanza and Port Bell-Kisumu, which also connect to the rail network.There are seven bridge vehicle ferries including three on Lake Victoria, two on Victoria Nile, one on Lake Albert and one on Albert Nile.
Demand Drivers and Resource Base factors
• The increased economic activities have put pressure on existing transport infrastructure.
• Growing tourist numbers have led to an increase in demand for road, air, marine and rail transport.
• Discovery of oil and other minerals requires improved transport infrastructure to facilitate exploitation of these resources.
• Increased urbanization demands an efficient transport network.
• Increased industrialization lends to increased movement of export and import goods.
• Increased cross border trade rates call for increased demand for provision of efficient means of transport to enhance transport of people and goods.
• Regional integration.
Resource Base Factors
• Rivers and Lakes to develop waterways
• Oil refinery by product bitumen used to make roads
• Granite and other rocks used to make tarmac
• Civil Engineering Universities that churn out engineers able to build and maintain roads and other transport infrastructure
1. Water transport infrastructure
2. Investment in water transport and entertainment vessels.
3. Investment in transport infrastructure bonds.
4. Air transportation
5. Cargo transportation
6. Transport logistics and management firms.
7. Construction of road networks through Public Private Partnerships.
8. Public transport systems.
9. Road construction rehabilitation and maintenance services.
10. Training and Capacity building in road construction and maintenance; maintenance and handling of heavy trucks and equipment.
11. Investment in Road management systems.
12. Investment in local domestic